Visiting Professor of New Testament, University of Heidelberg, 

WTS, Kisselgasse 1,  D-69117 Heidelberg; 

Office phone:  49-06221-54-3320; Fax: 54-3509; 

Study phone in Rothenberg: 49-06275-919-660; Fax: 919-666; 

E-Mail: or








  1. Paul's Anthropological Terms: A Study of Their Use in Conflict Settings, 499 page monograph in the A.G.J.U. Series, E.J. Brill, l97l.
  2. The Captain America Complex: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism, 286 page book by Westminster Press, l973; revised edition by Bear & Company, 1984; Korean translation by Young-Il Kim, Voice Publishing Company, Seoul, 1996.
  3. The American Monomyth, with John Shelton Lawrence, forward by Isaac Asimov, 263 page book by Doubleday/Anchor Press, l977; Italian translation by Bompiano Press; Japanese publication by Kaibun Sha. Ltd.; second edition, 331 page book by University Press of America, 1988.
  4. A Chronology of Paul's Life, l60 page book by Fortress Press, l979; published by SCM, London, as Dating Paul's Life; German translation by Gisela Koester for Kaiser Verlag, l982.
  5. Jesus Against the Rapture: Seven Unexpected Prophecies, l47 page book by Westminster Press, l979.
  6. Letter to Pilgrims: A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, 272 page book by United Church Press, l98l.
  7. Christian Tolerance: Paul's Message to the Modern Church, l47 page book by Westminster Press, l982.
  8. Romans, Teacher Book (72 pages) and Student Book (112 pages) for the "Genesis To Revelation Adult Bible Series," Vol 20, by the Graded Press of the United Methodist Publishing House, 1986.
  9. The Thessalonian Correspondence: Pauline Rhetoric and Millenarian Piety, 256 page book by Fortress Press, 1986.
  10. Romans, 160 page book in the "Cokesbury Basic Bible Commentary" series, by the United Methodist Publishing House, 1988; reprinted 1994 in the "Basic Bible Commentary" series.
  11. Saint Paul at the Movies: The Apostle's Dialogue with American Culture, 186 page book by Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993.
  12. Paul the Apostle to America: Cultural Trends and Pauline Scholarship, 250 page book by Westminster / John Knox Press, 1994.
  13. Saint Paul Returns to the Movies: Triumph over Shame, 220 page book Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, January 1999.
  14. The Myth of the American Superhero, with John Shelton Lawrence, 416 page book by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Summer, 2002.
  15. Captain America and the Crusade against Evil: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism, with John Shelton Lawrence, 392 page book by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Winter 2003.


  1. Editor of Christology and Exegesis: New Approaches, 233 page issue of Semeia: An Experimental Journal for Biblical Criticism 30 (1984), assisted by Associate Editors, L. W. Hurtado and P. R. Kiefert.
  2. Co-Editor of The Living Text: Essays in Honor of Ernest W. Saunders, 261 page book by University Press of America, 1985, with co editor, D. E. Groh.
  3. Co-editor of Common Life in the Early Church: Essays in Honor of Graydon F. Snyder, by Trinity Press International, 1998.


  1. Review of R. B. Martin, Carmen Christi in Journal of Religion 39 (l969) 306 07.
  2. "The Form and Function of the Homiletic Benediction," Anglican Theological Review 6 (l969) l8 34.
  3. "The Epistolary Thanksgiving and the Integrity of Philippians," Novum Testamentum 12 (l970) 40 53.
  4. "Conflicting Movements in the Early Church as Reflected in Philippians," Novum Testamentum 12 (l970) 363 90.
  5. "The Agitators and the Galatian Congregation," New Testament Studies 17 (l970 7l) l98 2l2.
  6. "The Zealot in America," The Quarterly of the American Interprofessional Institute 45 (1972) 4-8.
  7. "Threshing Sledges of Iron [Sermon for Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam]," The Morningside Review 46 (1972) 57-61.
  8. "Enthusiastic Radicalism and the Thessalonian Correspondence," Book of Seminar Papers, The Society of Biblical Literature, One Hundred Eighth Annual Meeting (l 5 September, l972) 1.l8l 232.
  9. "Whispered in Private Rooms . . . Shouted from the Housetops: Reflections onWatergate in Light of Luke l2:2 3," The Christian Century 90 (June 6, l973) 648 50.
  10. "The Law Is No Respector of Persons," The Christian Century 90 (November l4, l973) lll6.
  11. "Isaiah: '. . . Truth Has Fallen in the Public Squares,'" Christian Advocate 14 (November 22, l973) 7 8.
  12. Review of M. Smith, The Secret Gospel in Christian Advocate 14 (December 6, l973) l5 l6.
  13. "The Gospel as Heresy: Concordia Seminary in Exile," The Christian Century 91 (March 27, l974) 336 40.
  14. Review of W. Schmithals, Paul and the Gnostics and Gnosticism in Corinth for the Journal of Biblical Literature 93 (l974) 630 32.
  15. Review of A. C. Cochrane, Eating and Drinking with Jesus: An Ethical and Biblical Inquiry for The Review of Books on Religion 4 (l975).
  16. "Religious Studies and Popular Culture," Journal of Popular Culture 9 (Fall, l975) 49l 492; reprinted in Theories and Methodologies in Popular Culture, edited by R. B. Browne, et al., Bowling Green University Press, l976.
  17. Review of D. B. Kraybill, Our Star Spangled Faith for The Christian Century 93 (May l2, l976) 466 67. Articles for The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Supplement Volume, edited by K. Crim, V. P. Furnish, L. R. Bailey and E. S. Bucke (New York, Nashville: Abingdon Press, l976):
  18. "Body," ll7 l8;
  19. "Conscience," l73 74;
  20. "Flesh in the New Testament," 339 40;
  21. "Man, Nature of, in the New Testament," 56l 63;
  22. "Spirit," 839 4l.
  23. "Norm Demolition Derbies: Rites of Reversal in Popular Culture," with J. S. Lawrence, Journal of Popular Culture 9 (l976) 976 82; reprinted in The Popular Culture Reader, edited by R. B. Browne, et al., Bowling Green University Press, l977.
  24. "Mythic Conformity in the Cuckoo's Nest," with J. S. Lawrence, Psychocultural Review 1 (l977) 68 76.
  25. "'Star Trek' and the Bubble Gum Fallacy," with J. S. Lawrence, Television Quarterly 14 (l977) 5 l6.
  26. "Roots: Black Soap Opera?" with J. S. Lawrence, Sunday Des Moines Register, (February 6, l977).
  27. Review of J. R. McKay and J. F. Miller, eds., Biblical Studies: Essays in Honor of William Barclay in The Circuit Rider 1.8 (June, 1977) 19.
  28. "Beyond the Pornography of Violence," with J. S. Lawrence, Religion in Life 46 (l977) 357 63.
  29. Review of J. E. Adams, Preus of Missouri in The Christian Century 94 (October 5, l977) 885 86.
  30. "Pop Fascism in Star Wars or Vision of a Better World?" with J. S. Lawrence, Sunday Des Moines Register, (November 27, l977).
  31. "Psychohistory of the Cinema," with J. S. Lawrence, The Journal of Psychohistory 5 (Spring, l978) 5l2 20.
  32. Review of J. D. Smart, The Cultural Subversion of the Biblical Faith in Religion in Life 47 (l978) 243 45.
  33. "The Redaction of I Corinthians and the Trajectory of the Pauline School," JAAR Supplement 46 (l978) 389 44.
  34. Review of J. N. Hartt, The Restless Quest in Encounter 40 (1979) 86-87.
  35. "The Sexual Liberation of the Apostle Paul," JAAR Supplement 47 (l979) 55 87.
  36. "The Problem of Mythic Imperialism," with J. S. Lawrence, Journal of American Culture 2 (l979) 309 20.
  37. "Major Impulses in the Theological Interpretation of Romans since Barth," Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 34 (l980) l7 3l.
  38. Review of V. P. Furnish, The Moral Teachings of Paul in the Perkins Journal 33 (l980) 43 44.
  39. "U. S. Shows Naivete in Olympic Boycott," with J. S. Lawrence, Sunday Des Moines Register (April 6, l980).
  40. Review of J. A. MacCollam, Carnival of Souls: Religious Cults and Young People, in Christian Century 97 (April 23, l980) 474-75.
  41. Review of J. C. Beker, Paul the Apostle: The Triumph of God in Life and Thought, in Theology Today 38 (l98l) 394 97.
  42. "Romans as an Ambassadorial Letter," Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 36 (l982) 5 20.
  43. "The Fantasy Factor in Civil Religion: Assassinations and Mass Murder in the Media Age," with J. S. Lawrence, explor: A Theological Journal. Published by Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, (Fall, l982); reprinted in Sunstone 7 (l982) 28 33; reprinted in Mission Journal 17.2 (1983) 3-7, 17.
  44. "Chronology and Methodology: Reflections on the Debate Over Chapters in a Life of Paul," in A Time for Reappraisal and Fresh Approaches: Colloquy on New Testament Studies, edited by B. C. Corley, Mercer University Press, l983) 271-87, with subsequent "Seminar Dialogue with Robert Jewett and Gerd Luedemann," 309-37.
  45. Review of F. J. Ortkemper, Leben aus dem Glauben. Christliche Grundhaltungen nach Römer l2 l3, for the Journal of Biblical Literature 102 (1983) 509 11.
  46. Review of H. Moxnes, Theology in Conflict: Studies in Paul's Understanding of God in Romans, in the Trinity Journal 4 (1983) 109 11.
  47. "A Covenant with Death," Christian Century 100 (1983) 477-78.
  48. "American Civil Religion and Ritual Blindness," with J. S. Lawrence, Christian Century 100 (1983) 1075-78.
  49. Review of B. Holmberg, Paul and Power: The Structure of Authority in the Primitive Church as Reflected in the Pauline Epistles, in the Anglican Theological Review 66 (1984) 196-98.
  50. Review of D. Patte, Paul's Faith and the Power of the Gospel: A Structural Introduction to the Pauline Letters, in the The Journal of the American Academy of Religion 52 (1984) 379-80.
  51. "Coming to Terms with the Doom Boom," Quarterly Review 4.3 (1984) 9-22.
  52. "New Testament Christology: The Current Dialogue between Systematic Theologians and Biblical Scholars," Semeia 30 (1984) 3-12.
  53. "Paul, Saint," Academic American Encyclopedia (1984 and subsequent editions) Vol 15: 116-117.
  54. "The Redaction and Use of an Early Christian Confession in Romans 1:3 4," in The Living Text: Essays in Honor of Ernest W. Saunders, edited by R. Jewett and D. E. Groh (Washington: University Press of America, 1985) 99-122.
  55. "The Conflict over Sexual Roles in Pauline Churches," Wesleyan Theology Today: A Bicentennial Theological Consultation, edited by T. Runyon (Nashville: Kingswood Books/United Methodist Publishing House, 1985) 151-60.
  56. "The Law and the Coexistence of Jews and Gentiles in Romans," Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 39 (1985) 341-56.
  57. "Chronology, New Testament," Harper's Bible Dictionary (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985) 165-66.
  58. Review of D. Peterson, Hebrews and Perfection: An Examination of the Concept of Perfection in the "Epistle to the Hebrews" in The Journal of Religion 66 (1986) 72-73.
  59. "Following the Argument of Romans," Word and World: Theology for Christian Ministry 6 (1986) 382-89. Revised and reprinted in The Romans Debate, edited by K. P. Donfried (Hendrickson, 1991) 265-77.
  60. Review of H. Maccoby, The Myth-Maker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity, in the Philadelphia Inquirer (October 26, 1986) Section S.6.
  61. Review of J. L. Kugel and R. A. Greer, Early Biblical Interpretation, in The Christian Century 103. 35 (November 19, 1986) 1040-41.
  62. "Paul the Apostle," The Encyclopedia of Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1987) 11. 212-21.
  63. Review of B. J. Malina, The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology in Biblical Theology Bulletin 17 (1987) 78.
  64. "The Woeful Rich," The Journal of Stewardship 39 (1987) 36-45.
  65. Review of L. Gilkey, Creationism on Trial: Evolution and God at Little Rock, in New World Outlook (April, 1987) 41.
  66. "Zeal Without Understanding: Reflections on Rambo and Oliver North," The Christian Century 104 (September 9-16, 1987) 753-56.
  67. Review of J. L. White, Light from Ancient Letters, in Biblical Research 32 (1987) 46-49.
  68. Review of G. Luedemann, Apostle to the Gentiles: Studies in Chronology, in The Journal of the American Academy of Religion 55 (1987) 839-40.
  69. "Systems Theory and Pauline Anthropology: A Cross-Disciplinary Conversation," with J. B. Ashbrook, in The Journal of Pastoral Psychotherapy 1 (1987) 19-37.
  70. Review of N. Hyldahl, Die paulinische Chronologie, in The Journal of Biblical Literature 107 (1988) 549-50.
  71. "Introduction to the Pauline Letters," in Harper's Bible Commentary (New York: Harper & Row, 1988) 1120-29.
  72. "Paul, Phoebe, and the Spanish Mission," in The Social World of Formative Christianity and Judaism: Essays in Tribute to Howard Clark Kee, edited by P. Borgen et al (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988) 144-64.
  73. Review of J. Plevnik, What Are They Saying About Paul? for Biblical Theology Bulletin 19 (1989) 40.
  74. Review of P. Lampe, Die stadtrömischen Christen in den ersten beiden Jahrhunderten, for Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 43 (1989) 296-98.
  75. "Sin and Salvation: Amadeus in the Light of Romans," Ex Auditu: An International Journal of Theological Interpretation of Scripture 5 (1989) 159-69.
  76. "Corinth, Corinthian Correspondence," in the Encyclopedia of Early Christianity (New York: Garland, 1990) 234-36. Revised edition (New York: Garland, 1997) 1. 290-94.
  77. "Paul," in the Encyclopedia of Early Christianity (New York: Garland, 1990) 699-703. Revised edition (New York: Garland, 1997) 2. 881-85.
  78. "Jesus as the Apocalyptic Benefactor in Second Thessalonians," with F. W. Danker, in The Thessalonian Correspondence, edited by R. F. Collins (Leuven: University Press, 1990) 486-98.
  79. "A Chance to Affirm the Law of Nations," Christian Century 107 (November 14, 1990) 1054-55.
  80. "Numerical Sequences in Paul's Letter to the Romans," in Persuasive Artistry: Studies in New Testament Rhetoric in Honor of George A. Kennedy, edited by D. F. Watson (Sheffield: JSOT, 1991) 227-45.
  81. "A Matrix of Grace: The Theology of 2 Thessalonians as a Pauline Letter," in Pauline Theology. Volume I: Thessalonians, Philippians, Galatians, Philemon, edited by J. Bassler (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991) 63-70.
  82. "'Life to the Dead' from the God of Tender Mercies," in Life as Liberty, Life as Trust, edited by J. R. Nelson (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992) 1-14.
  83. "Competing in the Creedal Olympics: Pauline Resources for Cross-Cultural Ministry," in Knowledge, Attitude & Experience: Ministry in the Cross-Cultural Context, edited by Young-Il Kim (Nashville: Abingdon 1992) 23-36.
  84. "Ecumenical Theology for the Sake of Mission: Romans 1:1-17 + 15:14-16:24," Society of Biblical Literature 1992 Seminar Papers, ed. E. H. Lovering, Jr. (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992) 598-612.
  85. Review of P. Nathanson, Over the Rainbow: The Wizard of Oz as a Secular Myth of America, in Studies in Religion /Sciences Religieuses: A Canadian Journal 21 (1992) 478-79.
  86. "Rambo and the Myth of Redemption," with J. S. Lawrence; volume edited by R. P. Metzger, Transforming Texts: Classical Images in New Contexts (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1993) 63-83.
  87. "Paul's Dialogue with the Corinthians. . . and Us," in Quarterly Review: A Journal of Theological Resources for Ministry 13.4 (Winter, 1993) 89-112.
  88. "Tenement Churches and Communal Meals in the Early Church: The Implications of a Form-Critical Analysis of 2 Thess 3:10," in Biblical Research: Journal of the Chicago Society of Biblical Research 38 (1993) 23-43.
  89. "Tenement Churches and Pauline Love Feasts," in Quarterly Review: A Journal of Theological Resources for Ministry 14.1 (Spring, 1994) 43-58.
  90. "Gospel and Commensality: Social and Theological Implications of Galatians 2.14," in Gospel in Paul: Studies on Corinthians, Galatians and Romans for Richard N. Longenecker, edited by A. Jervis and P. Richardson, JSNTSup 108 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994), 240-52.
  91. Review of J. Lambrecht, The Wretched "I" and Its Liberation: Paul in Romans 7 and 8, in the Journal of Biblical Literature 114 (1995) 163-64.
  92. "Our flag should be honored, not held as sacred," with C. Collora, in The United Methodist Reporter (September 2, 1995).
  93. Review of J. A. Fitzmyer, Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, in the Journal of Biblical Literature 114 (1995) 745-47.
  94. "Guest Editorial: On Turning the Flag into a Sacred Object," with C. Collora, 18 page article for The Journal of Church and State 37 (Autumn, 1995) 741-52.
  95. Review of R. H. Bell, Provoked to Jealousy: The Origin and Purpose of the Jealousy Motif in Romans 9-11, in the Critical Review of Books on Religion 8 (1995) 170-73.
  96. Review of J. C. Walters, Ethnic Issues in Paul's Letter to the Romans: Changing Self-Definitions in Earliest Roman Christianity, in Critical Review of Books on Religion 8 (1995) 319-20.
  97. Review of D. Aukerman, Reckoning with Apocalypse: Terminal Politics and Christian Hope, in Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 50 (January 1996) 98-100.
  98. "Ecumenical Theology for the Sake of Mission: Rom 1:1-17 + 15:14-16:24," pp. 89-108 in D. M. Hay and E. E. Johnson, eds., vol. III of Pauline Theology (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1995; volume actually published in 1996).
  99. "Bibliography (on Romans)," pp. 301-29 in D. M. Hay and E. E. Johnson, eds., vol. III of Pauline Theology (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1995; volume actually published in 1996).
  100. Review of A. Smith, Comfort One Another: Reconstructing the Rhetoric and Audience of I Thessalonians, in Critical Reviews of Books in Religion 9 (1996) 171-73.
  101. Review of B. B. Scott, Hollywood Dreams and Biblical Stories, in Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 51.1 (1997)
  102. "Honor and Shame in the Argument of Romans," pp. 257-72 in A. Brown, G. F. Snyder and V. Wiles, eds., Putting Body and Soul Together: Essays in Honor of Robin Scroggs (Valley Forge: Trinity Press International, 1997).
  103. "Mapping the Route of Paul's 'Second Missionary Journey' on Previously Undiscovered Roman Roads from Pisidian Antioch to Troas," in Tyndale Bulletin 48.1 (1997) 1-22; the article is scheduled to be reprinted, with a "Postscript," in Thetis. Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte, edited by Reinhard Stupperich and Heinz A. Richter.
  104. Review of G. D. Fee, God's Empowering Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Letters of Paul, in Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 51.3 (1997) 320.
  105. "Babette's Feast and Shaming the Poor in Corinth," in Dialog: A Journal of Theology 36.4 (October, 1997) 270-76.
  106. "Stuck in Time: Kairos, Chronos and the Flesh in Groundhog Day," pp. 155-65 in Explorations in Theology and Film, edited by Clive Marsh and Gaye Ortiz; preface by Martin Scorsese (Oxford: Blackwells, 1997).
  107. "The Basic Human Dilemma: Weakness or Zealous Violence (Romans 7:7-25 and 10:1-18)." Ex Auditu: An International Journal of Theological Interpretation of Scripture 13 (1997) 96-109.
  108. Review of J. Murphy O'Connor, Paul: A Critical Life, in The Journal of Religion 78.1 (1998) 107.
  109. "The God of Peace in Romans: Reflections on Crucial Lutheran Texts," in Currents in Theology and Mission 25.3 (June 1998) "Essays in Honor of Edgar Krentz," 186-94.
  110. "Confession as Propaganda," Pro Ecclesia 7.4 (Fall, 1998) 395-97.
  111. "The Abandonment of Trust: A Biblical Reflection on Public Lies," Sojourners 26.7 (November-December, 1998) 10-11.
  112. "The Gospel of Violent Zeal in Clint Eastwood's Unforgiven," Christianity and Literature 47.4 (1998) 427-442.
  113. "Are There Allusions to the Love Feast in Rom 13:8-10?" in Common Life in the Early Church: Essays Honoring Graydon F. Snyder, edited by Julian V. Hills et al (Valley Forge: Trinity Press International, 1998), 265-78.
  114. "The Bond of Peace and Places in the Heart: Reflections on 'The Dialogue on Theological Diversity," Quarterly Review 18.4 (Winter, 1998-99) 355-65.
  115. "Confession and Forgiveness in the Public Sphere: A Biblical Evaluation," in Judgment Day in the White House, edited by Gabriel J. Fackre (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999) 53-71.
  116. "Chronology, New Testament," in Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation, edited by J. H. Hayes (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1999) 193-98.
  117. "The Ethical Legacy of the Impeachment Crisis," for Shalom Papers: Occasional Papers on Theology and Public Policy, Wesley Theological Seminary, 1999.
  118. "The Social Context and Implications of Homoerotic References in Rom 1:24-27," in Homosexuality, Science, and the "Plain Sense " of Scripture, edited by D. Balch, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000) 223-41.
  119. "The Disguise of Vengeance in Pale Rider," in Religion and Popular Culture in America, edited by B. Forbes and J. Mahan, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000) 243-57.
  120. "Paul and the Caravaneers: A Proposal on the Mode of 'Passing through Mysia' on the 'Second Missionary Journey,'" in Text and Artifact in the Religions of Mediterranean Antiquity: Essays in Honour of Peter Richardson, edited by S. G. Wilson and M. Desjardins, Studies in Christianity and Judaism 9 (Waterloo: Willfrid Laurier Press, 2000) 74-90.
  121. "Response: Exegetical Support from Romans and Other Letters," in Paul and Politics: Ekklesia - Israel - Imperium - Interpretation. Essays in Honor of Krister Stendahl, edited by R. A. Horsley (Harrisburg: Trinity Press International 2000) 58-71. Articles for The Lectionary Commentary: Theological Exegesis for Sunday's Texts. The Second Readings: Acts and the Epistles, ed. R. E. Van Harn (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans; London: Continuum, 2001):
  122. "Fourth Sunday of Advent, Year A (Romans 1:1-7)," 10-13.
  123. "Ninth Sunday after the Epiphany, Year A (Romans 1:16-17; 3:22b-28, 29-31), 14-17.
  124. "First Sunday in Lent, Year C (Romans 10:8-13), 109-12. 1
  125. "Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost, Year A (Romans 12:9-21), 120-24.
  126. "Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost, Year A (Romans 13:8-14), 124-27.
  127. "First Sunday of Advent, Year A (Romans 13:11-14), 128-31,
  128. "Fourth Sunday of Advent, Year B (Romans 16:25-27), 142-45.
  129. "Leib/Leiblichkeit. I. Biblisch." Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, fourth edition, vol. 5 (2002) 215-18.
  130. "Impeaching God's Elect: Rom 8:33-36 in its Rhetorical Situation," in A. Christophersen et al, eds., Paul, Luke and the Graeco-Roman World: Essays in Honour of Alexander J. M. Wedderburn. JSNTSupplement 217 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002) 37-58.
  131. "Investigating the Route of Paul's 'Second Missionary Journey' from Pisidian Antioch to Troas," in Actes du Ier Congres International sur Antioche de Pisidie, Collection d'Archeologie et d'Histoire de l'Antiquite of the Universite Lumiere - Lyon 2, edited by Thomas Drew-Bear, Mehmet Taslialan and Christine M. Thomas (Paris: de Boccard, 2002).
  132. "Blood Brothers. Bush's Rambo Delusion. The Myth of the American Superhero," with J. S. Lawrence, in San Francisco Chronicle (August 25, 2002); article adapted and translated as "Gezetz und Superheldengeist," Frankfurter Rundschau (July 24, 2002), p. 19; also in Sweden (Svenska Dagbladet; Dagens Forskning); Japan (Fuku-in to sekai); Finland (Suomen Kuvalehti).
  133. "The Crusading Tradition and the War Against Iraq," with J. S. Lawrence, Tikkun (Fall, 2002); article adapted and sent to Sweden (Svenska Dagbladet; Dagens Forskning); Japan (Fuku-in to sekai); Finland (Suomen Kuvalehti).
  134. "The Agitators and the Galatian Congregation," in The Galatians Debate: Contemporary Issues in Rhetorical and Historical Interpretation, edited by M. D. Nanos (Peabody: Hendrickson, 2002) 334-47.
  135. "1 and 2 Thessalonians," in the Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, edited by J. D. G. Dunn (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003) 1392-1406.
  136. "Romans," in The Cambridge Companion to St Paul, ed. J. D. G. Dunn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) 91-104..
  137. "The Biblical Sources of the Crusade against Evil," with J. S. Lawrence, in the Online Forum/ Newsletter of Religious Studies News--SBL Edition, in an issue entitled "Bush's Bible," May 2003, edited by Moira Bucciarelli..
  138. "Paul, Shame and Honor," in Paul and the Greco-Roman World, ed. J.P.Sampley, (Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 2003) 859-901.
  139. 'Bergers Bibelblitz.," with Peter Lampe and Helmut Schwier; in Evangelische Orientierung: Zeitschrift des evangelischen Bundes Nr. 2 (2003) 10-11. An abbreviated form of the essay appeared in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, with the title "Paulus ermutigt zur Interkommion," (May 28, 2003)




  1. Completion of a commentary on Paul's letter to the Romans, commissioned by the Hermeneia Commentary Board in 1980, for Fortress Press.            
  2. Essays on Paul's Letter to the Romans: The Genesis of a Commentary, revision of the Newell Lectures in Biblical Studies 1994, to be published by T. & T. Clark
  3. Paul's Letter to the Romans: A Comprehensive Bibliography, 2 volume book in the ATLA bibliography series for Scarecrow Press
  4. The Corinthian Correspondence: Redaction and Rhetoric, a collection of essays on the seven original letters contained in the canonical 1 & 2 Corinthians, for Fortress Press
  5. Persons  in Christ: Paul’s Contribution to Christian Anthropology, revision and expansion of  Paul’s Anthropological Terms, for Eerdmans Publishing House
  6. A Commentary on the Letter to the Hebrews in the Context of Jewish Mysticism, assigned by the editors of The New Cambridge Bible Commentary Series, to be submitted in 2004
  7. Tenement Churches and Agape Meals in Early Christianity: The Promise of a Suppressed Tradition, a collection of 14 published and unpublished essays dealing with the issue of sacramental commensality.
  8. A Chronology of Paul's Life and Letters: An Introduction, under development as a replacement and expansion of  the now out-of-print book, A Chronology of Paul's Life.
  9. 9. The Role of the Audience in Rhetorical Criticism: The History and Proposed Methodology of a New Testament Discipline, a study initially presented in a consultation of the Society of Biblical Literature.


  • The Fallen Day Star: Superheroism and the Bible, revision of the Rockwell Lectures at Rice University in l980, to be published by Eerdmans Publishing House
  • Chariots of Fire: Biblical Paradigms of War, Peace, and the Reign of God, presented as a 16,000 word essay for the cycle on War and Peacemaking sponsored by the Ethics Center, Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary in 1994; revised in 1999<
  • Saint Paul and the Movies: Worlds in Collision, the third volume of the series on Paul and film to be published by Eerdmans Publishing House
  • Gott sinnlich erfahren, hermeneutical essays on biblical themes related to collages by Heike Goebel, under development
  • Unending Journey: The Epistle to the Hebrews, Black Spirituals, and American Literature, under development out of the lectures and television courses taught with Carrol McLaughlin in the 1970's and courses taught with Anne Wimberly in the 1990's
  • Essays from Thessalonica:  Paul’s Critique of Utopian Fantasies, 12 chapter book of hermeneutical essays under development. 
  • Preaching Openly and Unhindered: Political, Memorial, and Ecclesial Sermons, 1965-2005, a collection of sermons during a 40 year ministry
  • Truth in the Public Square: Political and Cultural Essays a collection of published and unpublished essays on American civil religion, the church, the academy, and the Messianic vision of world order

    1. The Phrygian Project, exploring the center of early Montanism, Pepouza and surrounding villages; see Lampe’s description
    2. Research and exploration of the travel network used by Paul and other early Christian travellers, including the road system in the neighborhood of Pepouza and Tymion, and the land and sea routes radiating from Troas as reflected in the “We-Source” in Acts
    3. Coming Down into Troas: Searching for the Route of Paul's Second Missionary Journey and the Setting of Early Churches: An Archaeological and Historical Quest, book project in connection with archeological expeditions in Turkey during the summers of 1997-2005


    A large bibliography of critical studies on Paul's letter to the Romans written from 1830 onwards has been assembled and many of the articles and monographs have been copied and gathered into a research archive now located in Heidelberg. The list of titles is presently more than 1000 pages long, single spaced, and will probably grow to 1500 pages when the project is compete. At present approximately 25% of this bibliography is available either in duplicated form in the files of the Heidelberg archive or in the monograph collection associated with the project.

    The plan is to scan the entire bibliography and in cooperation with the university computer office, to place it on a website that would be available to students and scholars around the world. Since more has been written on Romans, verse for verse, than on any other biblical writing, or indeed, any other classic in the western world, and since only partial bibliographies are presently available, this project would provide a significant service. We hope that by 2004 the photographic scans of the bibliography would be available to scholars, and that by 2008 each item would be available in a version that could be downloaded and searched. In view of the thematic range of Romans, this bibliography would be useful to scholars in a number of fields.

    Background and Development of the Project

    The initial bibliography has been collected by Peter Lampe in connection with his book, Die Stadtrömischen Christen in den ersten beiden Jahrhunderten (Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1987, 1989); English translation, From Paul to Vanentinus: Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries (Minneapolis: Fortress, forthcoming) and by Robert Jewett in connection with writing the Hermeneia Commentary on Romans since 1980, including a series of preliminary publications. The agreement to create a united research archive was made in 1995, to be located in Kiel where Lampe was serving as Professor of New Testament. When he was called to the chair in Heidelberg in 1999, an invitation was extended for Jewett to become a guest professor in connection with locating the archive here. An agreement on this was reached as Lampe negotiated his post with the university. The Evanston research archive was brought to Heidelberg in the summer of 2000 and was joined with Lampe’s archive in a renovated portion of the WTS building at Kisselgasse 1. 

    The bibliography had been collected in a variety of ways. Partial bibliographies found in monographs and previous commentaries were assembled. For example, the large bibliography assembled by Lampe was incorporated. The Wagner bibliography from Switzerland and the Ecole Biblique bibliography were collated with items found in New Testament Abstracts, major commentaries and the IZBG.  Many items written prior to the 1920’s with the beginnings of Biblica’s surveys and 1950 with the inauguration of New Testament Abstracts had to be located in major university and national libraries. Many journals published between 1830 and 1920 have been searched year by year to ascertain the presence of relevant articles that had been overlooked in the scholarly discussion. 

    The scanning project is associated with the Forschungsstelle für die Wirkungsgeschichte des paulinischen Briefes an die Römer, attached to Lampe’s chair in Heidelberg. 

    with the commencement of a research grant for the bibliography project from the University of Heidelberg at the beginning of 2002, many of the technical aspects of the project have been researched and resolved; arrangements with the university computer center and the university library are in progress; the first staff persons were engaged; and the process of scanning with newly purchased equipment will begin later this spring. 

    The Need for a Comprehensive Bibliography on Romans

    Romans is the only biblical book for which no comprehensive bibliography has been published; it remains the sole biblical writing on which a bibliographical article in the Theologische Rundschau article has never appeared. The reason for this is that the bibliography is so immense that no one has been able to master it. Helmut Koester reported in the early 1980’s that he was once given the assignment to write a review article on Romans literature for the Theologische Rundschau and that after a number of years the assignment was withdrawn. Commentaries on Romans written before 1920 referred mostly to other commentaries and only on rare occasions to other secondary literature. Current commentaries are routinely written on the basis of a small selection of monographs and articles that have been used by previous commentaries or that appear in recent publications. The same small sample of scholarly studies is recycled again and again in recent commentaries on Romans, which continue the tradition of citing mostly other commentaries. Potentially significant articles and monographs overlooked by earlier commentarier continue to be overlooked as new commentaries appear.

    While it is self evident that reliable, comprehensive bibliographies are needed in every field, the crucial role that Paul’s letter to the Romans has played in theological development since the Reformation makes this an urgent desideratum. Now that computerized techniques of assembling bibliographies are available, and scanning techniques well developed, it is possible to break this deadlock and make this rich research available to scholars everywhere. Since so many of the items in the current bibliography that have been located through library and journal searches are available only in limited locations, they are available only to those with the means and time to travel. Most scholars and theological students around the world do not have such resources. The development of an on-line bibliography with the full texts of these studies will thus contribute to the productivity of scholars. Increased access to the scholarship of other nations and earlier generations will also encourage ecumenicity.

    The Scope and Organization of the Bibliography

    The Romans bibliography is organized in three sections: introductory issues; studies related to specific pericopes; and theological, thematic studies. In view of the range of the argument of Romans and its decisive role in ecclesiastical debate over the centuries, the latter section includes most of the important themes in biblical theology. The table of contents for the bibliography is attached.

    Scholarly studies from all over the world are included. Since there is such a large polemical literature on Romans, only critical items of scholarly interest are included. For the most part such articles discuss the Greek terms and the historical and cultural background of the argument. Important theological studies are included but merely polemical articles defending ecclesiastical traditions are not. If all articles and books related to Romans were included, the bibliography would be twice or three times as large, and far less useful for scholarly work. Although Romans research in Europe and North America has long restricted its bibliographic interest to the North Atlantic, Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s commentary in 1993 listed hundreds of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American items for the first time, some of which predated the development of the bibliographic surveys in Biblica, New Testament Abstracts, and Internationaler Zeitschriftenschau für Bibelwissenschaften und Grenzgebieten. Fully one third of his commentary consists of bibibliography he gathered over the years of working in the libraries of Italy and Spain. Jewett has conducted similar bibliographic surveys in Switzerland, Scandinavia, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. The plan is for Lampe and Jewett to extend such surveys into the Netherlands and eastern Europe over the course of the next several years. Since scholarly assessments based on long experience with the critical interpretation of Romans is required for this work, it cannot be assigned to research assistants. Because scholarly items from the Orient and Africa are adequately covered by the survey resources of the 20th century, we do not plan visits to libraries there. 

    In view of the wide variations in journal and series abbreviations, particularly in studies from the early period, and to overcome the various traditions of providing only partial bibliographic references, a comprehensive table of abbreviations had to be created. In order to supply missing volume numbers and to distinguish between journals with the same name, the place and year of first publication has been sought and collated. For example Exp is used as an abbreviation for a journal in the UK and the US, and sometimes the volume number in coordination with the year can be employed to identify which is which; there are two ITK’s, one a Protestant journal from Bern and the other a Catholic journal from Rodenkirchen; there are two LumVie’s that need to be distinguished as LumVie(B) and LumVie(L); there are three potential MTS’s; two RB’s, RE’s and StTh’s; there are no less than 5 potential SB’s and TB’s. The attached table of abbreviations resolves all such confusions by assigning unmistakable abbreviations. As new studies are discovered, additional abbreviations will be added to this list. In the process, care will continue to be taken to overcome the cultural biases inherent in many widely employed abbreviation systems for journals and monograph series. The abbreviations used by the Harvard Theological Review, for example, routinely refers to French items with commonly employed Germanic abbreviations. So far as possible, abbreviations favored by cultural traditions are employed in the bibliography, and Siegfried Schwertner’s comprehensive listing of abbreviations has been used to avoid duplications. The extensive table of abbreviations in the currently appearing fourth edition of Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart will also be consulted. The current form of this emerging abbreviation system is attached.

    Bibliographic items are listed in American style, with article titles in quotation marks and monograph titles italicized. Place of publication and the names of publishers are included, along with series titles, unitalicized, and relevant volume numbers. In order to overcome the provincialism implicit in the use of initials instead of full first and middle names, the names of authors are listed as on title pages but with bracketed completions. Thus Dodd, C.[harles] H.[arold]. This is required because of the multiplicity of names over the long period of the bibliography. When, for example there were three New Testament scholars writing at approximately the same time under the name of E. Fuchs, and when Smiths from all over the English speaking world appear in the indices, there is a need for bibliographic precision even though a considerable investment of research time is sometimes required.

    The size of the archive when completed will be somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000,000 pages. The length of the articles currently listed is approximately 73,000 pages and of the monographs and commentaries approximately 1,800,000 pages. Languages appearing in the bibliography at present include English, German, French, Dutch, Afrikaans, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Russian and Japanese. It is anticipated that other eastern European languages will be represented when currently planned visits to Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Romania are completed. The participation of a wider range of scholars in the project will probably augment this total of linguistic traditions where important research has been done.

    Copyright Issues

    The use of scholarly articles and monographs by other scholars and students falls under the rubric of “Fair Use.” The Copyright Act of 1976: Section 106, passed by the U. S. Congress defines this as follows: "[T]he fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies . . . for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include --

    (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
    (2) the nature of the copyrighted work;
    (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
    (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. . . .

    The widely cited collection of essays edited by John Shelton Lawrence, Fair Use and Free Inquiry: Copyright Law and the New Media (Ablex Publishing, 1980, 1989) and the study by Kenneth Crews, Copyright, Fair Use, and the challenge for universities (University of Chicago Press, 1993) indicate that there is a wide consensus in Europe and North America on these rules for fair use. We intend to follow these rules by making the archive available only to theological students and scholars who register with the website and receive a password; by avoiding the duplication of works still in print; and by announcing with every transmission that the items in the archive are not to be used for commercial purposes.

    Technical Dimensions of the Project

    After investigating the market, we have decided to scan with a Zeutschel Omniscan 5000 TT that is capable of copying a DIN A4 sized page at the optimum scale of 300 dpi in circa 2 seconds per page. Approximately another six second are required for the computer program to process each image. This eight second interval coordinates well with the time required to place the page on the scanner so that the heading and footnotes are exactly copied, and double checking that this is done accurately when the page is printed. We have decided that a slower scanner, though less expensive, places too heavy a burden of useless waiting time on the staff, which can be demoralizing. In view of the large volume of scanning required in the project, a heavy duty scanner is necessary. The scanning process creates TIF files, which are exact photographic reproductions. Since the scanned pages require computer processing, we have decided to use ScanSoft Omnipage 11 software, which offers the best range of features, reliability, and speed of operation. At present Omnipage can deal with 18 modern languages, including Finnish, Polish, and Russian, claiming over 99% accuracy. The Omnipage files that are archived contain the image data and the coordinated text data which can be exported either together or separated in many formats. We will use PDF Image and text that can be employed in wordprocessing, in a format such as Word. The correction of this language file, which can be searched and used in word processing, will be undertaken by the doctoral and post-doctoral students and staff as the project develops. In view of the range of languages employed in a typical New Testament study, we anticipate considerably less than the initial accuracy achieved by Omnipage in texts written only in one language.

    The scanned files are to be assembled and placed on a website, in some form of cooperation with the university library, with the memory system located in the university computer center. To maintain faith with the fair use regulations, each user would receive a permission number and would enter that number & password to access the archive. If we use the Heidelberg University Library system, no additional software would be required to process such passwords, and reliable access would be provided.